Shakil Kalam-History of Folk-Literature of Bangladesh (Prepared Angela Kosta)

Shakil Kalam-History of Folk-Literature of Bangladesh (Prepared Angela Kosta)
Introduction: Folklore of Bangladesh covers a significant part of Bangla literature. It originated from the spoken language of illiterate people. The structure of this literature develops from one generation to another through spoken language. This trend is developing a genre of Bengali literature. The distinct current of folklore has elevated Bengali literature to a distinct stage. Folklore contains our traditions, emotions, thoughts, joys and sorrows, laughter and tears, pain and suffering, ethics, social, political, economic and cultural values. Although this literature has been written from the language of the human mouth, its historical and archaeological material value is immeasurable.
History of Folk-Literature of Bangladesh:
The Maurya dynasty, the Gupta dynasty, the Pala dynasty, the Sen Dynasty, and the Muslims have gradually come to this region since 300 AD. Their way of life and culture has influenced the people of this region. Ships from Portugal, France, and the British then anchored in the country's ports. They have left products as well as culture in this country. Every nation has left its mark in this country physically and with the help of culture, and thus the foundation of the culture of this country has been laid.
Since folklore is oral, its language depends on the memoirs and patterns of the style. Bengali folklore includes epics, poems and plays, folk tales, folk songs, jari-sari, bhatiali, bhavaiya, biyergan, pujorgan, nabannergan, village-Bengali New Year celebrations, mela, halkhata, sanhita, proverbs etc. So far, it exists in different forms in different communities, whether educated or illiterate. Being written many years ago, the folklore of Bangladesh is strongly influenced by other characters. At present, there are many different elements in the folklore of Bangladesh. Cultural values can analyze the historical power of these elements.
The musical tradition of Bangladesh is based on folk music. We can divide the folk songs into seven parts: love, behavior, philosophy, devotion, work, labor, profession, satire and fun, etc. On the other hand, there are different forms of folk music, such as Baul, Gambhira, Bhatiali, Bhavaya, Kabigan, Ghetu Gaan, Jhumur, Barmasi, Meyali Geet, Jatra Gaan, Jari-Sari Gaan etc. Baul music is a unique tradition of the people of Bangladesh and has many songs, which has changed from one region to another. Majhimalla's songs, Gambhira, Bhatiali, Bhavaya, Palligiti have made Bangladesh unique in the world. But our folklore; a prominent element of folklore.
The pattern of our folklore:
Folk dramas have been created for entertainment or educational purposes through dance, song, music and acting, Jatra, palagan, puppet dance. Jatra (a type of folk drama) includes folk dramas, heroic legends, mythology, love and tragedy. Folk drama is served almost in the open field. Sometimes it is exhibited in a cinema hall or on a stage. However, folk drama is emphasized along with dancing and singing. In Bangladesh, Ram and Sita, Arjun and Draupadi, Radha and Krishna, Nimai Sannyasi, Behula and Lakshindar, Isha Kha Dewan, Firoz Dewan, Zainab and Hasan, Sakina and Qasim, Hanifa and Jaygun, Rahim Badsha and Rupban; narrated Folk-dramas are staged.
Folk rhymes can be divided into nursery rhymes, drama rhymes, social rhymes, historical rhymes, satirical rhymes, professional rhymes, educational rhymes, spiritual rhymes and magic. Rhymes or poems are recited to soothe and entertain the children. Again, many rhymes have been composed to educate people in entertainment, ethics, mathematics, astrology etc. Some of the rhymes have preserved historical events and memories. Folk proverbs are the shortest form of folklore. Usually, these rely on human experience, realistic reasoning and wisdom. The earliest specimens of Bengali literature are found in the Vedas and Upanishads, and the Charyapadas.
Folk Music:
Basically, Bangladeshi music is poetic. Indigenous music relies more on the skill of the oral melody than on the musical instruments. We can classify folk songs into seven categories. These are love, religious matters, philosophy and devotion, action and hard work, profession and livelihood, jokes and jokes and a mixture of these. On the other hand, in the folklore of this country, we see different branches of music. These are
Baul songs, Bhavaiya, Bhatiali, Gambhira, Kabigan, Jarigan, Sarigan, Ghatu songs, Jatra songs, Jhumur songs, Jag songs etc.
Bawl Song:
There is controversy over the origin of the word Bawl. According to historians, Bawl originated in Bangladesh in the seventeenth century. The promoters of this view are Aul Chand and Madhab Bibi. A Vaishnava moneylender named Birbhadra made it famous at that time. Bawl gained wide recognition through the songs of Lalon Sai. In 2005, UNESCO declared Baul music one of the world's richest orally and visual traditions.
Bhaoiaya Song:
Rangpur is the abode of “Bhaoiaya” songs. Due to the scarcity of rivers and canals in the northern part of Bangladesh, man’s movement by the bullock carts was too high. And the driver of the bullock cart, while driving at night, gets tired and sings in his mind. When the wheel of a bullock cart falls on a high or low road, the melody of their songs becomes half-broken or folded. This broken or folded lyric style is noticeable in Bhaoiaya’s music. These songs reflect local culture, village life, workplace, family events, etc.
Bhatiali Song:
Bhatiali is a popular folk song of the downstream region of Bangladesh. Especially in the riverine Mymensingh region in the north-eastern part of the Brahmaputra river, Bhatiali song is the main creation, practice and there is a massive influence of this song. According to the Bawls, Bhatiali songs are songs that share their reality. The main feature of Bhatiali songs is that these songs are composed mainly on the subjects of the boatman, boat, catkin on the bank of the river, sailing boat, current of the river and river's bank-breaking etc.
Gambhira Song:
Gambhira is prevalent in the Chapainawabganj district of Bangladesh and the Maldaha region of West Bengal. Grandpa and Grandson are very popular as the main characters of Gambhira in the Chapainawabganj district. Shiva is one of the traditional deities. Another name of Shiva is 'Gambhir'. The name of the song that was sung in the worship of Shiva at the festival Shiva became ‘Gambhira’ over time. Shiva> Gambhir> Gambhira. One problem after another is raised by serious acting. In Chaitra-Sankranti, Pala-Gambhira is served.
Kabigaan is a particular genre of Bengali folk music. In this genre, folk poets participate in competitive singing competitions. Two groups usually sing Kabigan. Each party leads by a Poet or Mentor. His assistant singers are called "Dohar". They typically repeat the leader's words.
The word “Jari” means lament or cry. The origin of this word is the Persian language. However, the meaning of the word has become widespread in Bengali. In Bangladesh, on the special day of Muharram, the story of the tragic events of Karbala, which are described with dance, that songs are commonly known as Jarigaan. The genre of this song has been prevalent in Bengal since the seventeenth century.
Folk Tales:
Folklore is all those stories passed down from generation to generation through the mouths of people. These are composed in the form of prose and can be simple or complex. Folk tales based on subject, meaning and structure can be fairy tales, myths, and adventure stories, stories of heroism, historical stories, and stories of sages. The characters in the local stories are mainly based on fate, and the stories are dominated by magical powers instead of knowledge and intellect.
Ballades (Geetika) of Folk-literature:
Ballade is fictional folklore. In addition to the recitation, it is sung, and the expressions have folk features. Its main basis is folklore, and folk rhymes are often used in descriptions. There is only one incident or crisis story in the subject matter. Drama and dialogue are their main qualities. Ballade's story action, character, environment and content are limited to these four characteristics. In this case, the action becomes the main thing and acquires dramatic quality. The ups and downs of the event create coruscation and surprises. Only the main course of events progresses rapidly towards the end. Ballade's characters often take on a kind of form. But sometimes, it becomes as clear and distinct as the drama. The ballades are sung in traditional tunes with the help of local musical instruments. But since the story is the main goal, the monotony of the melody does not seem unpleasant to the listener.
The Ballade (Geetika) of Mymensingh:
The traditional songs of the Mymensingh region are collectively called Mymensingh Geetika (ballad). The first volume is a compilation of ten ballads in the Mymensingh region. Although there are ten authors of the first volume in different, the collector is Chandra Kumar Dey. People have heard these songs since ancient times. However, in 1923-32, Dr. Dinesh Chandra Sen collected these songs with the help of others and published them in his own edition from Calcutta University. Chandra Kumar Dey, a resident of Aithar in Netrokona sub-division of Mymensingh district at that time, was collecting these ballades. The lyric is printed in 23 languages of the world.
East Bengal Lyric:
After Mymensingh Geetika, the traditional folklore of the East Bengal region is collectively called East Bengal Geetika. Ballads (Palasgan) has become an invaluable resource in Bengali literature since ancient times. In 1926, Dr Dinesh Chandra Sen edited and published the palas with the financial help of Calcutta University. Later, in 1971-1975, Khitish Chandra published the original and ancient East Bengal lyric in seven volumes.
Sylhet Geetika:
The folklore of Sylhet folklore, such as oral ketcha, kahini, Jatra-pala, etc., is simultaneously termed as Sylhet Geetika. The source of Sylhet lyricism is considered to be the daily lifestyle of the ancient people of the Sylhet region, the livelihood of the indigenous people, the feudal system of governance, rural folklore, sentiments, love-separation, war and humanity. According to the list of Professor Asaddar Ali, 120 folk tales have been included in Sylhet Geetika. Besides, Chowdhury Golam Akbar Sahitya Bhushan selected ten lyric poems from Bangla Academy in 1986 and published them together under the name Sylhet Geetika
Devotees of Bengali Folk Literature:
A large section of the rural population has contributed to folk literature. A large portion of them are folk-poets who are commonly called "Boyaati". Origin of the word "Boyaati" from the word "BAYAT" in ancient Russian language. The boatman of Bengal lifts the boat’s sails and sings "Bhatiali" songs with joy in their minds. The driver of a cart or bullock cart in the northern part of the country picks up the tune of Bhavaya song while driving. The bawls play the monochord and present their theory. Some people have made an outstanding contribution in bringing their fame to our notice. Chandra Kumar dey Mymensingh, a resident of Aithar in Netrokona district, collected the lyrics. These songs were edited by Dr. Dinesh Chandra Sen and published by Calcutta University. Many talented people have a special contribution to our folk literature previously. Among them, Hasan Raja, Fakir Lalon Sai, Abdul Karim Sahitya Bisharad, Bihari Lal Dey, Dakshina Ranjan Mitra, Dr. Muhammad Enamul Haque, Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah, Dr. Ashraf Siddiqui, Kanai Lal Shil, Harolal Roy, Dinesh Chandra Sen, Chandra Kumar Dey and Shah Abdul Karim names are particularly significant
Folklorist Shamsuzzaman Khan:
At present, the person whose name can be specially mentioned in folk literature in Bangladesh is the late Professor Shamsuzzaman Khan. He was a folklorist and researcher. He is known as a brilliant pioneer of folklore. He joined the Folklore Department of the Bangla Academy when it was started. Later he enriched the folklore with his new plans. He collected the history and culture of folk literature from 64 districts of Bangladesh. He edited and published the collected material in volumes. As far as is known to date, no significant research work has been done on folk literature in contemporary Bangladesh. However, Dr. Mozharul Islam of Bangladesh and Ashutosh Bhattacharya of West Bengal have recently published many research books on folklore.
Folklore of Bangladesh is not written. It refers to the oral tradition written by the people. In folklore, epics, professional verses, ceremonial verses, rhymes or poems in praise of rulers and other eminent persons have been composed in the form of prose or verses. The heroism of the rulers in folklore is full of verses. In a word, folk literature is a glorious chapter of Bengali literature. Bangladesh plays a unique role in folk literature, modern Bengali literature, culture and tradition. However, it was created through the rural population and spread orally from generation to generation. However, folklore has given broadness and enrichment to modern Bengali literature.The creation of the individual has become the tradition of the people through which love, emotion, feeling and thought have been expressed. Applying these elements to the modern, postmodern or surrealist literature through our care and development will establish a close relationship with our soil or roots. By being acquainted with the multidimensional wisdom of our forefathers, we will be able to elevate modern Bengali literature to world - class through the combination of our original folklore. Folk tales have been passed down from one generation to the next. These are composed in the form of prose, which can be simple or complex. Folk tales are fairy tales, myths, religious stories, thrillers, heroic stories, agricultural stories, historical stories, animal stories, legends. The stories are based on content, meaning and metaphors. The main characters of Bengali folklore are fate, divinity dependent intellect, wisdom, labor, and struggle. In our folklore, magic has gotten priority over action.

Prepared Angela Kosta Executive Director of MIRIADE Magazine, Academic, journalist, writer, poet, essayist, literary critic, editor, translator
Article -II- continues tomorrow!